Patterns

1. Increasing quantum number n
• Shells remain similar in shape
• Extra levels of orbitals are added on
 n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 l=0, m=0     l=1, m=0    l=1, m=1    2. Increasing quantum number l
• Two extra orbitals of equal or lower density are added on which are the same size as the outer orbital
• The density of the new orbitals relative to the previous ones depends on n and m
• One level of higher density orbitals, which are found closer to the centre, disappear
 l=1 l=2 l=3 l=4 n=5, m=1 Top View    n=5, m=1 Side View    n=4, m=0 Top View   n=4, m=0 Side View   3. Increasing quantum number m
• Layers of orbitals remain the same. For example, if there is one inner orbital and one outer orbital, that remains invariant of m
• The outer orbitals approach the same size
• Number of orbitals which are the same size as the largest orbital decrease by two every time m is increased.
• This is a common trend, but is not always true as can be seen between m=(0,1)
 m=0 m=1 m=2 m=3 m=4 n=5, l=4     n=4, l=3    