ls list files and directories ls -a list all files and directories mkdir make a directory cd directory change to named directory cd change to home-directory cd ~ change to home-directory cd .. change to parent directory pwd display the path of the current directory
cp file1file2 copy file1 and call it file2 mv file1file2 move or rename file1 to file2 rm file remove a file rmdir directory remove a directory cat file display a file more file display a file a page at a time head file display the first few lines of a file tail file display the last few lines of a file grep 'keyword' file search a file for keywords wc file count number of lines/words/characters in file
command > file
redirect standard output to a file command >> file append standard output to a file command < file redirect standard input from a file command1 | command2 pipe the output of command1 to the input of command2
cat file1file2 > file0 concatenate file1 and file2 to file0 sort sort data who list users currently logged in a2ps textfile > psfile convert text file to postscript file lpr -Pprinterpsfile print postscript file to named printer
Introduction to The UNIX operating system
Listing files and directories
Changing to a different Directory
The directories . and ..
More about home directories and pathnames
Removing Files and directories
Displaying the contents of a file on the screen
Searching the contents of a file
Redirecting the Output
Redirecting the Input
File system security (access rights)
Changing access rights
Processes and Jobs
Listing suspended and background processes
Killing a process
Other Useful UNIX commands
In what follows, we shall use the following typographical conventions:
Characters written in bold typewriter font are commands to be typed into the computer as they stand.So, for example,
Characters written in italic typewriter font indicate non-specific file or directory names.
Words inserted within square brackets [ ] indicate keys to be pressed.% ls anydirectory[Return]means "at the UNIX prompt %, type ls followed by the name of some directory, then press the key marked return"
Don't forget to press the [Return] key: commands are not sent to the computer until this is done.
Note: UNIX is "case-sensitve", so
is not the same as
The same applies to filenames, so myfile.txt, MyFile.txt and MYFILE.TXT are three seperate files. Beware if copying files to a PC, since DOS and Windows do not make this distinction.